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There were calculated to be 2. New York City had the largest number of Muslims with 69, In , Dearborn, Michigan , ranked second with 29,, and Los Angeles ranked third with 25,; although Paterson, New Jersey , in the New York City Metropolitan Area , was estimated to have become home to 25, to 30, Muslims as of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania , was estimated to have 30, to 50, Muslims as of The number of mosques in the United States in was 2, Muslims in the United States have increasingly made their own culture; there are various Muslim comedy groups, rap groups, Scout troops and magazines, and Muslims have been vocal in other forms of media as well.

Within the Muslim community in the United States there exist a number of different traditions. As in the rest of the world, the Sunni Muslims are in the majority.

Shia Muslims, especially those in the Iranian immigrant community, are also active in community affairs. All four major schools of Islamic jurisprudence fiqh are found among the Sunni community.

Some Muslims in the U. As of December increasing numbers of Muslim Americans are celebrating Christmas ; [] Jesus is a holy prophet in Islam.

Bush over Democratic candidate Al Gore. However, due to the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq which took place under the Bush Administration , as well as what some call an increased anti-Muslim rhetoric from the Republican Party after the September 11 attacks , [] [] support for the Republican Party among American Muslims has declined sharply.

By , Bush's Muslim support had been reduced by at least half, who would vote for Democratic candidate John Kerry or a third party candidate.

Regarding the 45th president of the United States, Donald Trump, Muslims are the least likely to approve of him across all faith groups including non affiliated Americans.

Unlike many Muslims in Europe, American Muslims overall do not tend to feel marginalized or isolated from political participation and have often adopted a politically proactive stance.

Several organizations were formed by the American Muslim community to serve as "critical consultants" on U. Other groups have worked with law enforcement agencies to point out Muslims within the United States that they suspect of fostering "intolerant attitudes".

Still others have worked to invite interfaith dialogue and improved relations between Muslim and non-Muslim Americans. Growing Muslim populations have caused public agencies to adapt to their religious practices.

Airports such as the Indianapolis International Airport , Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport [] [ failed verification ] , Kansas City International Airport have installed foot-baths to allow Muslims, particularly taxicab drivers who service the airports, to perform their religious ablutions in a safe and sanitary manner.

A Pew report released in noted that nearly six out of ten American adults see Muslims as being subject to discrimination, more than Mormons , atheists , or Jews.

On December 14, , the Chief of Chaplains of the United States Army requested that an insignia be created for future Muslim chaplains, and the design a crescent was completed January 8, Despite the work that Muslim Americans have done to normalize their faith practices in America and establish themselves within the society, discrimination and islamophobia continue to serve as obstacle to true integration.

ISNA is an association of immigrant Muslim organizations and individuals that provides a common platform for presenting Islam.

It is composed mostly of immigrants. Its membership may have recently exceeded ASM, as many independent mosques throughout the United States are choosing to affiliate with it.

The second largest is the community under the leadership of W. It was the successor organization to the Nation of Islam , once better-known as the Black Muslims.

The association recognizes the leadership of Warith Deen Mohammed. This group evolved from the Black separatist Nation of Islam — The majority of its members are African Americans.

This has been a year process of religious reorientation and organizational decentralization, in the course of which the group was known by other names, such as the American Muslim Mission , W.

Deen Mohammed guided its members to the practice of mainstream Islam such as salat or fasting, and teaching the basic creed of Islam the shahadah.

ICNA describes itself as a non-ethnic, open to all, independent, North America -wide, grass-roots organization. It is composed mostly of immigrants and the children of immigrants.

It is growing as various independent mosques throughout the United States join and also may be larger than ASM at the present moment.

Its youth division is Young Muslims. ISCA strives to integrate traditional scholarship in resolving contemporary issues affecting the maintenance of Islamic beliefs in a modern, secular society.

According to its website, among the goals of IANA is to "unify and coordinate the efforts of the different dawah oriented organizations in North America and guide or direct the Muslims of this land to adhere to the proper Islamic methodology.

The MSA is involved in providing Muslims on various campuses the opportunity to practice their religion and to ease and facilitate such activities.

MSA is also involved in social activities, such as fund raisers for the homeless during Ramadan. The Islamic Information Center IIC is a "grass-roots" organization that has been formed for the purpose of informing the public, mainly through the media, about the real image of Islam and Muslims.

The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was established in the U. Muslim Congress is another National Muslim Organization.

It is primarily a Social Welfare organization and runs many social projects, including Food Distribution to the homeless in their "No More Hunger" project and also provides Scholarship.

It is under the leadership of Islamic Scholars. Muslim political organizations lobby on behalf of various Muslim political interests.

Organizations such as the American Muslim Council are actively engaged in upholding human and civil rights for all Americans. Charitable donations within the Muslim American community are impacted by domestic political and social climates.

In addition to the organizations listed above, other Muslim organizations in the United States serve more specific needs.

For example, some organizations focus almost exclusively on charity work. As a response to a crackdown on Muslim charity organizations working overseas such as the Holy Land Foundation , more Muslims have begun to focus their charity efforts within the United States.

There are two museums dedicated to the history of Islamic culture in the U. The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding , with offices in Dearborn, MI and Washington, DC, is an independent, nonpartisan research organization specializing in addressing the most pressing challenges facing the American Muslim community and in bridging the information gap between the American Muslim community and the wider society.

A CBS April poll showed that, in terms of faiths []. The Pew survey shows that, in terms of adherents []. According to a research by the New America foundation and the American Muslim Initiative found in , 56 percent of Americans believed Islam was compatible with American values and 42 percent said it was not.

About 60 percent believed US Muslims were as patriotic as others, while 38 percent they were not. The study also found that a big majority of Americans - 74 percent - accepted there was "a lot" of bigotry against Muslims existed.

Researchers also found that Republicans were more likely to hold negative perceptions of Muslims with 71 percent.

In a survey titled Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream , the Pew Research Center found Muslim Americans to be "largely integrated, happy with their lives, and moderate with respect to many of the issues that have divided Muslims and Westerners around the world.

Politically, American Muslims both supported larger government and are socially conservative. Bush was responsible.

Similarly to the broader American public, U. Muslims have become more accepting of homosexuality in recent years.

After the September 11 attacks , America saw an increase in the number of hate crimes committed against people who were perceived to be Muslim, particularly those of Middle Eastern and South Asian descent.

Department of Justice. On a small number of occasions Muslim women who wore distinctive hijab were harassed, causing some Muslim women to stay at home, while others temporarily abandoned the practice.

In November Amal Abusumayah, a mother of four young girls, had her hijab pulled following derogatory comments while grocery shopping.

One in four bullying incidents involving Muslims is rerouted to have involved a teacher or other school official.

The climate of the presidential election and the policies that followed have also affected the lives and sentiments of Muslims Americans when it comes to their own safety.

When it comes to religious based discrimination, Muslim Americans as a whole were the most likely faith group to report it.

A Pew poll reported support for extremism among Muslim Americans is negligible. After the September 11 attacks and the start of the Afghanistan war in , there was concern about the potential radicalization of American Muslims.

Between and the end of , there were 46 publicly reported incidents of "domestic radicalization and recruitment to jihadist terrorism" that involved at least people between and the end of There had been an average of six cases per year since , but that rose to 13 in This number is down from the six individuals charged with attacks in The Boston Marathon bombing in caused injuries, and 5 civilian and police deaths.

Some Muslim Americans have been criticized because of perceived conflicts between their religious beliefs and mainstream American value systems.

Muslim cab drivers in Minneapolis, Minnesota have been criticized for refusing passengers for carrying alcoholic beverages or dogs.

The Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport authority has threatened to revoke the operating authority of any driver caught discriminating in this manner.

At least one American not of recent immigrant background, John Walker Lindh , has been imprisoned, convicted on charges of working with the Taliban and carrying weapons against American soldiers.

He had converted to Islam while in the United States, moved to Yemen to study Arabic , and then went to Pakistan , where he was recruited by the Taliban.

He was detained as a material witness until June 9, , when President George W. Bush designated him an enemy combatant and, arguing that he was not entitled to trial in civilian courts, had him transferred to a military prison.

He had converted to Islam while serving his last jail sentence in prison, and went to Pakistan where he was recruited into Al-Qaeda.

In four U. Marines were killed and three injured in Chattanooga, Tennessee by a twenty four-year-old Kuwaiti man, [] a naturalized US citizen with an engineering degree.

According to a Gallup poll, over the preceding decade there had been an increase in Islamophobia , which it defined as "an exaggerated fear, hatred, and hostility toward Islam and Muslims that is perpetuated by negative stereotypes resulting in bias, discrimination, and the marginalization and exclusion of Muslims from social, political, and civic life.

A Pew Research Center survey found that Muslims were the most disliked religious group in the United States with an average "cold" rating of 40 out of , which is lower than the 41 cold rating received by atheists.

Public institutions in the U. The University of Michigan—Dearborn and a public college in Minnesota have been criticized for accommodating Islamic prayer rituals by constructing footbaths for Muslim students using tax-payers' money.

Critics said this special accommodation, which is made to satisfy the needs of Muslims alone, is a violation of Constitutional provisions separating church and state.

Some critics said exceptions have not been made for any religious group in the past, and they see this as an endorsement of Islam.

The congressman later retracted the statement, saying that it was "inappropriate" for him to have made the comparison. At Columbus Manor School, a suburban Chicago elementary school with a student body nearly half Muslim Arab American , school board officials have considered eliminating holiday celebrations after Muslim parents complained that their culture's holidays were not included.

Local parent Elizabeth Zahdan said broader inclusion, not elimination, was the group's goal. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Islam by country Africa. Omar Ibn Said was an Islamic scholar from Senegal. Main article: Ahmadiyya in the United States. Main article: Moorish Science Temple of America.

Main article: Nation of Islam. Mosque Maryam in Chicago. Satokata Takahashi Noble Drew Ali. Beliefs and theology. Offshoots and sects.

Related organizations. Main article: Five-Percent Nation. Main article: United Nation of Islam.

See also: Shia Islam in the Americas. Main article: Jihadist extremism in the United States. Main article: Islamophobia in the United States.

Islam portal United States portal. Muslim population continues to grow". Pew Research Center. January 3, Retrieved August 16, Retrieved May 1, Archived from the original on December 21, Retrieved December 6, Institute for Social Policy and Understanding.

March 21, Retrieved June 14, January 2, The New York Times. National Humanities Center. Archived from the original on July 16, Retrieved July 21, Archived from the original on February 11, Retrieved February 12, An estimated 20 percent of enslaved Africans were Muslims, and many sought to recreate the communities they had known.

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Johnson, eds. The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on March 11, Retrieved March 11, Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History.

Retrieved March 5, August 26, Worcester, MA. Retrieved December 18, Palgrave Macmillan. Archived from the original on December 12, Retrieved July 2, New York: Facts on File.

Archived from the original on July 5, Retrieved July 7, Archived from the original on March 24, Muslims In America.

Archived PDF from the original on December 12, Archived from the original on December 9, Islam and Muslims in the American Continent.

Justia Law. Retrieved August 24, Washington Post. Based on "records for 27, voyages that set out to obtain slaves for the Americas".

Behrendt, Stephen New York: Basic Civitas Books. Kevin In Hill, Samuel S. Encyclopedia of Religion in the South. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press.

Gordon Islam in North America: A Sourcebook. New York: Garland Publishing Inc. Retrieved November 17, November The Journal of Southern History.

May Library of Congress Information Bulletin. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on April 27, Retrieved December 16, The Avalon Project.

Yale Law School. February 27, Archived from the original on December 3, April 21, Archived from the original on December 5, September 15, Archived from the original on December 2, Spellberg, "Could a Muslim Be President?

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American Muslim perspective. Archived from the original on September 28, Archived from the original on March 25, Islam in the African-American experience 2nd ed.

Bloomington, Ind. Retrieved November 13, Chicago Reader. Archived from the original on February 23, Retrieved February 15, Metuchen, N.

Cleveland: World Publishing. Retrieved October 16, University of Virginia. Archived from the original on November 9, Hate Groups in ". Southern Poverty Law Center.

Archived from the original on October 27, Retrieved October 29, Archived from the original on January 19, Retrieved February 13, June 28, Hip-Hop Wired.

Archived from the original on October 12, Retrieved October 11, Islam in the African-American experience. Retrieved June 21, Retrieved April 22, Rowman Altamira.

US Institute of Peace Press. The Victoria Advocate. Archived from the original on December 28, More than two decades after a controversial imam was found stabbed to death inside his Tucson mosque, an Arizona jury has found former Calgarian Glen Cusford Francis guilty of first-degree murder in the case.

Muslims in America: A short history. Oxford University Press. Cite error: The named reference "convert2" was defined multiple times with different content see the help page.

Michael October 14, United States Senate. Archived from the original on May 27, Retrieved January 19, Archived PDF from the original on May 30, Archived from the original on February 6, Archived from the original on November 6, Retrieved January 6, October 28, Archived from the original on April 26, Retrieved May 2, Pew Research.

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Saturday September 28, Retrieved from Google Books 45—46 of 51 on February 19, April 26, Council on American-Islamic Relations. Archived from the original PDF on October 6, Retrieved February 19, USA Today.

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Archived from the original PDF on October 16, Retrieved August 19, The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on February 16, Retrieved June 15, United States Senator Charles Schumer.

Archived from the original on June 10, Archived from the original on June 18, October 11, Archived from the original on February 21, Retrieved April 28, Physicians — A National Survey".

Journal of General Internal Medicine. October Archived from the original PDF on March 10, Retrieved March 9, M New England Journal of Medicine.

Archived from the original on October 14, Archived from the original on February 8, Archived from the original on March 8, Huffington Post.

Archived from the original on June 15, North Jersey Media Group. Archived from the original on October 16, Retrieved April 10, Archived from the original on May 5, Retrieved May 4, The first generations of Africans brought to North America were likely to work in the fields alongside and sleep under the same roof as their owners.

They hoped conversion would help them secure social standing. They were more likely to be Muslims, and much less likely to be of mixed descent.

Islam could, to an extent, persist on these plantations of American slave society. Similarly, between and , the French took advantage of civil war in West Africa to enslave thousands, bringing almost 6, enslaved Africans directly to Louisiana.

Islam had reached Futa Toro in the 11th century. Ever since, Futa has been known for its scholars, jihad armies and theocracies, including the Imamate of Futa Toro, a theocratic state that lasted from to Lateth- and early 19th-century African conflicts in the Gold Coast what is now Ghana and Hausaland mostly present-day Nigeria also reverberated in the Americas.

In the former, the Asante defeated a coalition of African Muslims. In the latter, the jihadists ultimately prevailed but in the process lost many compatriots to the slave trade and the West.

He was of the Fulbe, an Islamic people of West Africa. As early as the 16th century, European traders enslaved many Fulbe, sending them to be sold in America.

Diallo was born in Bundu, an area between the Senegal and Gambia rivers, under an Islamic theocracy. He was captured by a British slave trader in , and eventually sold to a Maryland slaveowner.

An Anglican missionary recognised Diallo writing in Arabic and offered him wine to test if he was a Muslim. In such a fashion, the experience of enslavement and passage to America saw many Arabic names Anglicised; Quranic names rendered into something familiar from the King James Bible.

Toni Morrison drew on the history of Islamic naming practices in America in her novel Song of Solomon The title of the novel comes from a folk song that holds clues to the history of its protagonist, Milkman Dead, and his family.

The song of Solomon, in other words, was also and might have first been the song of Suleyman. Re-naming slaves sometimes in derogatory or jesting ways was an important tool of planter authority, and rarely neglected.

Nonetheless, across North America, Arabic names remain part of the historical record. Louisiana court records of the 18th and 19th century show proceedings related to Almansor, Souman, Amadit, Fatima, Yacine, Moussa, Bakary, Mamary and others.

Newbell Puckett, a 20th-century sociologist, spent a lifetime collecting ethnographic material about Afro-American cultural life. It is difficult to know to what extent the persistence of Arabic names related to continued religious practice or identity, but it seems unlikely to be totally disconnected.

They include Akbar, Alli, Amina, Hamet and many others. On plantations in the early 19th-century Carolinas, Moustapha was a popular name. Arabic names do not necessarily make one a Muslim, at least not in the Maghreb or Levant, where Arabs are Christians and Jews too.

But it was the spread of Islam that brought Arabic names to West Africa. So these African and Afro-American Aminas and Akbars, or at least their parents or grandparents, were almost surely Muslims.

O ut of fear, Spanish authorities had tried to ban Muslim slaves from their early American settlements. In the more established and secure slave society of 18th- and 19th-century Anglo-America, some planters preferred them.

In both cases, the reasoning was the same: Muslims stood apart, possessed authority, and exerted influence. He and others cited instances of Muslim slaves siding with the Americans, against the British, in the War of Some Muslim slaves in 19th-century America had themselves been slaveowners, teachers or military officers in Africa.

Ibrahima abd al-Rahman was a colonel in the army of his father, Ibrahima Sori, an emir or governor in Futa Jallon, in what is now Guinea.

In , at age 26, al-Rahman was captured in war, purchased by British traders, and transported to America. Al-Rahman spent nearly 40 years picking cotton in Natchez, Mississippi.

For more than two years, the ACS pressured Foster, who finally agreed to free al-Rahman but refused to free his family. Al-Rahman was a Muslim and he prayed as a Muslim.

When he met with the leaders of the ACS, he told them he was a Muslim. Yet Thomas Gallaudet, a prominent Yale-educated evangelical and education activist, gave al-Rahman a Bible in Arabic and asked that they pray together.

Second, powerful institutions specialising in writing, recordkeeping, publishing and education essential technical skills in crafting history into the past acted to misrepresent him.

Puritans were neither beloved by nor necessarily representative of New Englanders. Islam developed, in part, to exist above the great linguistic and cultural differences of Asia and Africa: al-Rahman spoke six languages.

Anglo-American evangelical Protestantism is, by contrast, a younger, narrower religion. It took shape in the culturally circumscribed region of the North Atlantic and in a dynamic relationship with both capitalism and nationalism.

It aims not at transcending heterogeneity but rather as Gallaudet and Tappan were attempting with al-Rahman to homogenise.

How many Muslims were there in America between, say, and ? How many in North America? Sylviane A Diouf is the great historian of the subject. Nonetheless, many more Muslims came to early America than did Britons arriving during the height of Puritan colonisation.

Perhaps 25 per cent of these came as servants whose Puritan sentiments cannot be presumed. Despite these relatively small numbers, the Puritans succeeded in becoming the schoolmasters to a nation.

Yet in some respects, New England is also the loser in the rise of the US. It reached its peak of economic and political influence in the 18th century.

Despite its prominent role in US independence, it has never been the centre of economic or political power either in the British colonies in North America, nor in Greater America, nor even in the US.

Seen simply as one of many New World colonies, New England was in notable respects an outlier. It was demographically unique for its settlement by families , religiously sectarian, politically anomalous and, from the perspective of Europe, economically secondary.

Fish, timber and maritime commerce — specifically, their trade with the West Indian plantations — not religion, made life in 17th- and 18th-century New England what it was.

Some of the same qualities that made the Puritans so unusual helped them excel at writing history. They were exceptionally adept in literacy, education, textual exegesis and institution-building.

Before modern nations, histories of peoples had been genealogies. A people were those who descended from an ancestor: Abraham or Aeneas, for example, and thus naturally related.

The ideal of the modern nation presented a new problem. A nation is supposed to be one common people, who share fundamental, even inherent qualities — but not an ancestry, nor a king or queen.

A t the end of the 18th century, almost no one quite knew how to represent a common people. In North America, the Puritans came the closest.

They thought and wrote of themselves not as a common people but a chosen people, a people not sharing descent from a lord but following the Lord.

For rendering the history of a heterogeneous population into a national unity, it was by no means a perfect fit. But it would have to do.

The Puritan effect has excluded much, including the long and enduring presence of Muslims and Islam in America, as well as some of the integrity and poignancy of the Puritan experience on its own terms, distinct from its contributions to US national history.

The domination of the Puritan institutions has given colonial New England an outsized role. Over two centuries, mores have changed a great deal, but great 19th-century historians such as Francis Parkman and Henry Adams share with their 20th- and 21st-century successors Perry Miller, Bernard Bailyn and Jill Lepore a commitment to finding America, and the national origins of the US, in 18th-century New England.

One of the most perverse feats of Puritan history-writing has been to claim the mantle of religious freedom as some Anglo-Protestant commitment.

Neither John Winthrop, Cotton Mather nor any part of the Puritan squirearchy suffered real religious persecution. Possessing power, as Anglo-Protestants in America have, is not entirely compatible with the basis for some of the claims to moral authority of Christianity.

Nor is it wholly consonant with the idea of America as a land of religious freedom, an asylum for the persecuted, as Tom Paine put it in If there is any religious group who represents the best version of religious freedom in America, it is Muslims such as Zemourri and al-Rahman.

They came to America under conditions of genuine oppression, and struggled for the recognition of their religion and the freedom to practise it.

In contrast to Anglo-Protestants, Muslims in America have demurred the impulse to tyrannise others, including Native Americans.

The most persistent consequence of the Puritan effect has been a continuing commitment to producing a past focused on how the actions, usually courageous and principled, of Anglo-Protestants almost always in New England and the Chesapeake led to the United States of America, its government and its institutions.

The truth is that the history of America is not primarily an Anglo-Protestant story, any more than the history of the West more broadly.

But the more global era in history inaugurated by the European colonisation of the Western hemisphere must be a significant part of it.

If the West means, in part, the Western hemisphere or North America, Muslims have been part of its societies from the very beginning.

Conflicts over what the American nation is and who belongs to it are perennial. Answers remain open to a range of possibilities and are vitally important.

Any statement or suggestion to the contrary, no matter how well-meaning, derives from either intended or inherited chauvinism. Richard W Orange.

Courtesy the Wellcome Collection. Catherine Stinson.

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From to at least about , America, simply, is Greater America, or vast, early America. Muslims were part of Greater America from the start, including those parts of it that would become the United States.

Against all odds, Zemourri survived and made a life for himself, travelling from the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico through what is now the Southwestern US, as well as Meso-America.

He struggled through servitude to native peoples before fashioning himself into a well-known and respected medicine man.

De Vaca told of the disasters that befell the conquistadores , and of the eight years that the survivors spent wandering through North and Meso-America.

If there is such a thing as a best version of the American pioneer or frontier spirit, some resonating experience of adaptation and reinvention that can stamp itself on a nation and peoples, it is difficult to find one who represents it better than Zemourri.

Between and , the beginnings of plantation society in the Chesapeake allowed local slavemasters to bring more than 6, Africans to Virginia and Maryland.

This boom in the trade propelled an important change in American life. In , white servants in the Chesapeake had outnumbered black slaves by five to one.

By , that ratio had been reversed. Over the first four decades of the 18th century, more Africans came to the Chesapeake.

Between and , growing planter wealth led to the importation of another 8, enslaved Africans. By the s, an additional 2, slaves per year, at least, came to the Chesapeake.

The American Chesapeake was transforming from a society with slaves most societies in human history have had slaves to a slave society, which is far more unusual.

In a slave society, slavery is the foundation of economic life and the master-slave relationship serves as the exemplary social relation, a model for all others.

The first generations of Africans brought to North America were likely to work in the fields alongside and sleep under the same roof as their owners.

They hoped conversion would help them secure social standing. They were more likely to be Muslims, and much less likely to be of mixed descent.

Islam could, to an extent, persist on these plantations of American slave society. Similarly, between and , the French took advantage of civil war in West Africa to enslave thousands, bringing almost 6, enslaved Africans directly to Louisiana.

Islam had reached Futa Toro in the 11th century. Ever since, Futa has been known for its scholars, jihad armies and theocracies, including the Imamate of Futa Toro, a theocratic state that lasted from to Lateth- and early 19th-century African conflicts in the Gold Coast what is now Ghana and Hausaland mostly present-day Nigeria also reverberated in the Americas.

In the former, the Asante defeated a coalition of African Muslims. In the latter, the jihadists ultimately prevailed but in the process lost many compatriots to the slave trade and the West.

He was of the Fulbe, an Islamic people of West Africa. As early as the 16th century, European traders enslaved many Fulbe, sending them to be sold in America.

Diallo was born in Bundu, an area between the Senegal and Gambia rivers, under an Islamic theocracy. He was captured by a British slave trader in , and eventually sold to a Maryland slaveowner.

An Anglican missionary recognised Diallo writing in Arabic and offered him wine to test if he was a Muslim. In such a fashion, the experience of enslavement and passage to America saw many Arabic names Anglicised; Quranic names rendered into something familiar from the King James Bible.

Toni Morrison drew on the history of Islamic naming practices in America in her novel Song of Solomon The title of the novel comes from a folk song that holds clues to the history of its protagonist, Milkman Dead, and his family.

The song of Solomon, in other words, was also and might have first been the song of Suleyman. Re-naming slaves sometimes in derogatory or jesting ways was an important tool of planter authority, and rarely neglected.

Nonetheless, across North America, Arabic names remain part of the historical record. Louisiana court records of the 18th and 19th century show proceedings related to Almansor, Souman, Amadit, Fatima, Yacine, Moussa, Bakary, Mamary and others.

Newbell Puckett, a 20th-century sociologist, spent a lifetime collecting ethnographic material about Afro-American cultural life. It is difficult to know to what extent the persistence of Arabic names related to continued religious practice or identity, but it seems unlikely to be totally disconnected.

They include Akbar, Alli, Amina, Hamet and many others. On plantations in the early 19th-century Carolinas, Moustapha was a popular name.

Arabic names do not necessarily make one a Muslim, at least not in the Maghreb or Levant, where Arabs are Christians and Jews too.

But it was the spread of Islam that brought Arabic names to West Africa. So these African and Afro-American Aminas and Akbars, or at least their parents or grandparents, were almost surely Muslims.

O ut of fear, Spanish authorities had tried to ban Muslim slaves from their early American settlements. In the more established and secure slave society of 18th- and 19th-century Anglo-America, some planters preferred them.

In both cases, the reasoning was the same: Muslims stood apart, possessed authority, and exerted influence.

He and others cited instances of Muslim slaves siding with the Americans, against the British, in the War of Some Muslim slaves in 19th-century America had themselves been slaveowners, teachers or military officers in Africa.

Ibrahima abd al-Rahman was a colonel in the army of his father, Ibrahima Sori, an emir or governor in Futa Jallon, in what is now Guinea.

In , at age 26, al-Rahman was captured in war, purchased by British traders, and transported to America.

Al-Rahman spent nearly 40 years picking cotton in Natchez, Mississippi. For more than two years, the ACS pressured Foster, who finally agreed to free al-Rahman but refused to free his family.

Al-Rahman was a Muslim and he prayed as a Muslim. When he met with the leaders of the ACS, he told them he was a Muslim. Yet Thomas Gallaudet, a prominent Yale-educated evangelical and education activist, gave al-Rahman a Bible in Arabic and asked that they pray together.

Second, powerful institutions specialising in writing, recordkeeping, publishing and education essential technical skills in crafting history into the past acted to misrepresent him.

Puritans were neither beloved by nor necessarily representative of New Englanders. Islam developed, in part, to exist above the great linguistic and cultural differences of Asia and Africa: al-Rahman spoke six languages.

Anglo-American evangelical Protestantism is, by contrast, a younger, narrower religion. Small-scale migration to the U. Most of the immigrants, from Arab areas of the Ottoman Empire , came with the purpose of making money and returning to their homeland.

However, the economic hardships of 19th-century America [ clarification needed ] prevented them from prospering, and as a result the immigrants settled in the United States permanently.

Ross, North Dakota is the site of the first documented mosque and Muslim Cemetery, but it was abandoned and later torn down in the mids.

A new mosque was built in its place in Construction of mosques sped up in the s and s, and by , there were over 20 mosques. Eighty-seven percent of mosques in the U.

California has more mosques than any other state. Ahmadi Muslims were among the earliest Muslim missionaries in America , the first being Mufti Muhammad Sadiq , and between and alone they converted over people to Islam.

Although at first their efforts were broadly concentrated over a large number of racial and ethnic groups, subsequent realization of the deep-seated racial tensions and discrimination made Ahmadi missionaries focus their attention on mainly African Americans and the Muslim immigrant community and became vocal proponents of the civil rights movement.

During the first half of the 20th century, a small number of African Americans established groups based on Islamic and Gnostic teachings.

Drew taught that black people were of Moorish origin but their Muslim identity was taken away through slavery and racial segregation, advocating the return to Islam of their Moorish ancestry.

This is not an unlikely idea, considering the first major Muslim immigrants came through the slave trade.

Although practicing Muslims at the time of their arrival, Christian missionaries sought to covert slaves to Christianity and were mostly successful.

Its significant divergences from mainstream Islam and strong African-American ethnic character [67] make its classification as an Islamic denomination a matter of debate among Muslims and scholars of religion.

Its primary tenet was the belief that they are the ancient Moabites who inhabited the Northwestern and Southwestern shores of Africa.

The organization also believes that their descendants after being conquered in Spain are slaves who were captured and held in slavery from — by their slaveholders.

Adherents of the Moorish Science Temple of America believe that the so-called " Negroid Asiatic" was the first human inhabitant of the Western Hemisphere.

In their religious texts members refer to themselves as "Asiatics", [68] within the teachings of Noble Drew Ali, the members are taught man cannot be a Negro, Colored Folk, Black people, Ethiopians or African-Americans, because these names were given to slaves by slave holders in and lasted until during the time of slavery.

The Moorish Science Temple of America is legally and lawfully recognized as the first and oldest Islamic Organization in America, with its current leader R.

He provided three main principles which serve as the foundation of the NOI: "Allah is God, the white man is the devil and the so-called Negroes are the Asiatic Black People, the cream of the planet earth".

In Elijah Muhammad became the leader of the NOI, he deified Fard, saying that he was an incarnation of God, and taught that he was a prophet who had been taught directly by God in the form of Fard.

Two of the most famous people to join the NOI were Malcolm X , who became the face of the NOI in the media, and Muhammad Ali , who, while initially rejected, was accepted into the group shortly after his first world heavyweight championship victory.

Malcolm X was one of the most influential leaders of the NOI and, in accordance with NOI doctrine, advocated the complete separation of blacks from whites.

Kennedy assassination , and proceeded to form Muslim Mosque, Inc. He is viewed as the first person to start the movement among African Americans towards Sunni Islam.

It was estimated that there were at least 20, members in The Nation of Islam has received a great deal of criticism for its anti-white, anti-Christian, and anti-semitic teachings, [74] and is listed as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center.

Clarence 13X, a former student of Malcolm X, left the Nation of Islam after a theological dispute with the Nation's leaders over the nature and identity of God.

Members of the group call themselves Allah's Five Percenters, which reflects the concept that ten percent of the people in the world know the truth of existence, and those elites and agents opt to keep eighty-five percent of the world in ignorance and under their controlling thumb; the remaining five percent are those who know the truth and are determined to enlighten the rest.

It was founded circa by Royall Jenkins, who continues to be the leader of the group and styles himself "Royall, Allah in Person".

Mohammed rejected many teachings of his father, such as the divinity of Fard Muhammad, and saw a white person as also a worshiper.

As he took control of the organization, he quickly brought in new reforms. It was estimated that there were , followers of W.

Mohammed at the time. Mohammed introduced teachings which were based on orthodox Sunni Islam. A small number of Black Muslims however rejected these new reforms brought by Imam Mohammed.

Louis Farrakhan , who broke away from the organization, re-established the Nation of Islam under the original Fardian doctrines, and remains its leader.

An estimated , Shia Muslims live in the United States. Some Muslim Americans adhere to the doctrines of Sufism.

The ISCA's stated aims include providing practical solutions for American Muslims, based on the traditional Islamic legal rulings of an international advisory board, many of whom are recognized as the highest ranking Islamic scholars in the world.

ISCA aims to integrate traditional scholarship in resolving contemporary issues affecting the maintenance of Islamic beliefs in a modern, secular society.

This movement was founded by Rashad Khalifa. His movement popularized the phrase: "The Qur'an, the whole Qur'an, and nothing but the Qur'an".

Although he was initially well received by many, his subsequent claims of divine inspiration caused friction between him and others, and he was assassinated in Non-denominational Muslims, do not have any specific affiliation with a religious body and usually describe themselves as being "just a Muslim".

Muslims who were born in the US are more likely to be non-denominational than immigrant Muslims. There are some mosquegoers who adhere to sects and denominations that form very small minorities.

Some of the earliest Islamic missionary activities were undertaken by Alexander Russell Webb , who in established a mission in Manhattan ; though it faltered due to lack of funding.

The converts Sadiq attracted tended to be African American. In recent years there has been significant conversion to Islam in the state, federal and local prisons of the United States.

According to J. Waller states that these inmates mostly come into prison as non-Muslims. The U. Census Bureau does not collect data on religious identification.

Various institutions and organizations have given widely varying estimates about how many Muslims live in the U.

Tom W. Smith, author of "Estimating the Muslim Population in the United States", said that of twenty estimates he reviewed during a five-year period until , none was "based on a scientifically-sound or explicit methodology.

All can probably be characterized as guesses or assertions. None of these sources gave any basis for their figures. Some journalists have also alleged that the higher numbers have been inflated for political purposes.

According to a Pew Forum estimate, in there were 3. Since , the black proportion had shrunk, while the white and Asian proportions had grown, mainly due to immigration as most black Muslims were native U.

Around that time increasing numbers of American Hispanics converted to Islam. Many Hispanic converts in Houston said that they often had been mistaken as of being of Pakistani or Middle Eastern descent, due to their religion.

Many Hispanic converts were former Christians. Since the arrival of South Asian and Arab communities during the s there has been divisions with the African Americans due to the racial and cultural differences; however, since September 11, , the two groups joined together when the immigrant communities looked towards the African Americans for advice on civil rights.

Mosques are usually explicitly Sunni or Shia although they are over 55 Ahmadiyya mosques as well. There are 2, mosques in the United States as of [update] , [] and the nation's largest mosque, the Islamic Center of America , is in Dearborn, Michigan.

It caters mainly to the Shia Muslim congregation; however, all Muslims may attend this mosque. It was rebuilt in to accommodate over 3, people for the increasing Muslim population in the region.

In many areas, a mosque may be dominated by whatever group of immigrants is the largest. Sometimes the Friday sermons, or khutbas , are given in languages like Urdu , Bengali or Arabic along with English.

Areas with large Muslim populations may support a number of mosques serving different immigrant groups or varieties of belief within Sunni or Shia traditions.

At present, many mosques are served by imams who immigrate from overseas, as only these imams have certificates from Muslim seminaries.

The household income levels of American Muslims are about as evenly distributed as the general American population. When it comes to education, the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding reported in that across the board, American Muslims, Protestants, and Catholics have similar education levels.

Current estimates show that there are full-time Islamic schools that enrol between 26, to 35, students in the United States.

Others enrol students from diverse backgrounds and ethnicities. Typically Islamic schools integrate religious knowledge throughout the curricula, incorporate prayer into their daily schedules, require modest dress, and serve halal food.

Among South Asians in the country, the large Pakistani American community stands out as particularly well educated and prosperous, with education and income levels exceeding those of U.

Many are professionals , especially in medicine they account for 2. There are more than 15, medical doctors practicing medicine in the USA who are of Pakistani origin alone [] and the number of Pakistani American millionaires was reported to be in the thousands.

This compares to the national average of 44 percent. This is likely due to the strong concentration of Muslims in professional, managerial, and technical fields, especially in information technology, education, medicine, law, and the corporate world.

There were calculated to be 2. New York City had the largest number of Muslims with 69, In , Dearborn, Michigan , ranked second with 29,, and Los Angeles ranked third with 25,; although Paterson, New Jersey , in the New York City Metropolitan Area , was estimated to have become home to 25, to 30, Muslims as of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania , was estimated to have 30, to 50, Muslims as of The number of mosques in the United States in was 2, Muslims in the United States have increasingly made their own culture; there are various Muslim comedy groups, rap groups, Scout troops and magazines, and Muslims have been vocal in other forms of media as well.

Within the Muslim community in the United States there exist a number of different traditions. As in the rest of the world, the Sunni Muslims are in the majority.

Shia Muslims, especially those in the Iranian immigrant community, are also active in community affairs.

All four major schools of Islamic jurisprudence fiqh are found among the Sunni community. Some Muslims in the U.

As of December increasing numbers of Muslim Americans are celebrating Christmas ; [] Jesus is a holy prophet in Islam. Bush over Democratic candidate Al Gore.

However, due to the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq which took place under the Bush Administration , as well as what some call an increased anti-Muslim rhetoric from the Republican Party after the September 11 attacks , [] [] support for the Republican Party among American Muslims has declined sharply.

By , Bush's Muslim support had been reduced by at least half, who would vote for Democratic candidate John Kerry or a third party candidate.

Regarding the 45th president of the United States, Donald Trump, Muslims are the least likely to approve of him across all faith groups including non affiliated Americans.

Unlike many Muslims in Europe, American Muslims overall do not tend to feel marginalized or isolated from political participation and have often adopted a politically proactive stance.

Several organizations were formed by the American Muslim community to serve as "critical consultants" on U. Other groups have worked with law enforcement agencies to point out Muslims within the United States that they suspect of fostering "intolerant attitudes".

Still others have worked to invite interfaith dialogue and improved relations between Muslim and non-Muslim Americans. Growing Muslim populations have caused public agencies to adapt to their religious practices.

Airports such as the Indianapolis International Airport , Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport [] [ failed verification ] , Kansas City International Airport have installed foot-baths to allow Muslims, particularly taxicab drivers who service the airports, to perform their religious ablutions in a safe and sanitary manner.

A Pew report released in noted that nearly six out of ten American adults see Muslims as being subject to discrimination, more than Mormons , atheists , or Jews.

On December 14, , the Chief of Chaplains of the United States Army requested that an insignia be created for future Muslim chaplains, and the design a crescent was completed January 8, Despite the work that Muslim Americans have done to normalize their faith practices in America and establish themselves within the society, discrimination and islamophobia continue to serve as obstacle to true integration.

ISNA is an association of immigrant Muslim organizations and individuals that provides a common platform for presenting Islam. It is composed mostly of immigrants.

Its membership may have recently exceeded ASM, as many independent mosques throughout the United States are choosing to affiliate with it. The second largest is the community under the leadership of W.

It was the successor organization to the Nation of Islam , once better-known as the Black Muslims. The association recognizes the leadership of Warith Deen Mohammed.

This group evolved from the Black separatist Nation of Islam — The majority of its members are African Americans.

This has been a year process of religious reorientation and organizational decentralization, in the course of which the group was known by other names, such as the American Muslim Mission , W.

Deen Mohammed guided its members to the practice of mainstream Islam such as salat or fasting, and teaching the basic creed of Islam the shahadah.

ICNA describes itself as a non-ethnic, open to all, independent, North America -wide, grass-roots organization. It is composed mostly of immigrants and the children of immigrants.

It is growing as various independent mosques throughout the United States join and also may be larger than ASM at the present moment.

Its youth division is Young Muslims. ISCA strives to integrate traditional scholarship in resolving contemporary issues affecting the maintenance of Islamic beliefs in a modern, secular society.

According to its website, among the goals of IANA is to "unify and coordinate the efforts of the different dawah oriented organizations in North America and guide or direct the Muslims of this land to adhere to the proper Islamic methodology.

The MSA is involved in providing Muslims on various campuses the opportunity to practice their religion and to ease and facilitate such activities.

MSA is also involved in social activities, such as fund raisers for the homeless during Ramadan. The Islamic Information Center IIC is a "grass-roots" organization that has been formed for the purpose of informing the public, mainly through the media, about the real image of Islam and Muslims.

The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was established in the U. Muslim Congress is another National Muslim Organization. It is primarily a Social Welfare organization and runs many social projects, including Food Distribution to the homeless in their "No More Hunger" project and also provides Scholarship.

It is under the leadership of Islamic Scholars. Muslim political organizations lobby on behalf of various Muslim political interests. Organizations such as the American Muslim Council are actively engaged in upholding human and civil rights for all Americans.

Charitable donations within the Muslim American community are impacted by domestic political and social climates. In addition to the organizations listed above, other Muslim organizations in the United States serve more specific needs.

For example, some organizations focus almost exclusively on charity work. As a response to a crackdown on Muslim charity organizations working overseas such as the Holy Land Foundation , more Muslims have begun to focus their charity efforts within the United States.

There are two museums dedicated to the history of Islamic culture in the U. The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding , with offices in Dearborn, MI and Washington, DC, is an independent, nonpartisan research organization specializing in addressing the most pressing challenges facing the American Muslim community and in bridging the information gap between the American Muslim community and the wider society.

A CBS April poll showed that, in terms of faiths []. The Pew survey shows that, in terms of adherents []. According to a research by the New America foundation and the American Muslim Initiative found in , 56 percent of Americans believed Islam was compatible with American values and 42 percent said it was not.

About 60 percent believed US Muslims were as patriotic as others, while 38 percent they were not. The study also found that a big majority of Americans - 74 percent - accepted there was "a lot" of bigotry against Muslims existed.

Researchers also found that Republicans were more likely to hold negative perceptions of Muslims with 71 percent.

In a survey titled Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream , the Pew Research Center found Muslim Americans to be "largely integrated, happy with their lives, and moderate with respect to many of the issues that have divided Muslims and Westerners around the world.

Politically, American Muslims both supported larger government and are socially conservative. Bush was responsible. Similarly to the broader American public, U.

Muslims have become more accepting of homosexuality in recent years. After the September 11 attacks , America saw an increase in the number of hate crimes committed against people who were perceived to be Muslim, particularly those of Middle Eastern and South Asian descent.

Department of Justice. On a small number of occasions Muslim women who wore distinctive hijab were harassed, causing some Muslim women to stay at home, while others temporarily abandoned the practice.

In November Amal Abusumayah, a mother of four young girls, had her hijab pulled following derogatory comments while grocery shopping.

One in four bullying incidents involving Muslims is rerouted to have involved a teacher or other school official.

The climate of the presidential election and the policies that followed have also affected the lives and sentiments of Muslims Americans when it comes to their own safety.

When it comes to religious based discrimination, Muslim Americans as a whole were the most likely faith group to report it.

A Pew poll reported support for extremism among Muslim Americans is negligible. After the September 11 attacks and the start of the Afghanistan war in , there was concern about the potential radicalization of American Muslims.

Between and the end of , there were 46 publicly reported incidents of "domestic radicalization and recruitment to jihadist terrorism" that involved at least people between and the end of There had been an average of six cases per year since , but that rose to 13 in This number is down from the six individuals charged with attacks in The Boston Marathon bombing in caused injuries, and 5 civilian and police deaths.

Some Muslim Americans have been criticized because of perceived conflicts between their religious beliefs and mainstream American value systems. Muslim cab drivers in Minneapolis, Minnesota have been criticized for refusing passengers for carrying alcoholic beverages or dogs.

The Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport authority has threatened to revoke the operating authority of any driver caught discriminating in this manner.

At least one American not of recent immigrant background, John Walker Lindh , has been imprisoned, convicted on charges of working with the Taliban and carrying weapons against American soldiers.

He had converted to Islam while in the United States, moved to Yemen to study Arabic , and then went to Pakistan , where he was recruited by the Taliban.

He was detained as a material witness until June 9, , when President George W. Bush designated him an enemy combatant and, arguing that he was not entitled to trial in civilian courts, had him transferred to a military prison.

He had converted to Islam while serving his last jail sentence in prison, and went to Pakistan where he was recruited into Al-Qaeda.

In four U. Marines were killed and three injured in Chattanooga, Tennessee by a twenty four-year-old Kuwaiti man, [] a naturalized US citizen with an engineering degree.

According to a Gallup poll, over the preceding decade there had been an increase in Islamophobia , which it defined as "an exaggerated fear, hatred, and hostility toward Islam and Muslims that is perpetuated by negative stereotypes resulting in bias, discrimination, and the marginalization and exclusion of Muslims from social, political, and civic life.

A Pew Research Center survey found that Muslims were the most disliked religious group in the United States with an average "cold" rating of 40 out of , which is lower than the 41 cold rating received by atheists.

Public institutions in the U. The University of Michigan—Dearborn and a public college in Minnesota have been criticized for accommodating Islamic prayer rituals by constructing footbaths for Muslim students using tax-payers' money.

Critics said this special accommodation, which is made to satisfy the needs of Muslims alone, is a violation of Constitutional provisions separating church and state.

Some critics said exceptions have not been made for any religious group in the past, and they see this as an endorsement of Islam. The congressman later retracted the statement, saying that it was "inappropriate" for him to have made the comparison.

At Columbus Manor School, a suburban Chicago elementary school with a student body nearly half Muslim Arab American , school board officials have considered eliminating holiday celebrations after Muslim parents complained that their culture's holidays were not included.

Local parent Elizabeth Zahdan said broader inclusion, not elimination, was the group's goal. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Islam by country Africa. Omar Ibn Said was an Islamic scholar from Senegal. Main article: Ahmadiyya in the United States. Main article: Moorish Science Temple of America.

Main article: Nation of Islam. Mosque Maryam in Chicago. Satokata Takahashi Noble Drew Ali. There are other Muslims in our group.

For the most part, not many people are aware of the Native American contact with Islam that began over one thousand years ago by some of the early Muslim travelers who visited us.

Some of these Muslim travelers ended up living among our people. For most Muslims and non-Muslims of today, this type of information is unknown and has never been mentioned in any of the history books.

There are many documents, treaties, legislation and resolutions that were passed between s and s that show that Muslims were in fact here and were very active in the comunities in which they lived.

This treaty details our continued right to exist as a community in the areas of commerce, maritime shipping, current form of government at that time which was in accordance with Islam.

According to a federal court case from the Continental Congress, we help put the breath of life in to the newly framed constitution.

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